mRNA localisation, as a mechanism for directing localised protein synthesis, plays a vital role in the functioning of certain cells, such as neurons and oocytes. Potentially this mechanism may also occur in polarised intestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that Staufen155, a protein involved in mRNA localisation and transport, is asymmetrically distributed in differentiated Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells and partly co-localised with calnexin, a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum. The localisation to the apical region of the cell indicates that Staufen may be involved in localisation of transcripts to this domain.
We use a bargaining Nike Air Max 1
framework to examine empirically the relations between director compensation and board-of-director independence. Our evidence suggests that independent directors have a bargaining advantage over the CEO that results in compensation more closely aligned with shareholders’ objectives. Firms with more outsiders on Nike Air Max 1
their boards award directors more equity-based compensation. When the CEO's power over the board increases, compensation provides weaker incentives to monitor. Firms with more inside directors and with entrenched CEOs use less equity-based pay. Furthermore, firms with entrenched CEOs and CEOs who also chair the board are less likely to replace cash pay with equity.